Reading St Augustine’s Confessions reminded me of the Buddhist tradition's three ways of knowing, or "wisdoms": experiential/mystical, cerebral/rational, and learning/textual. (The Pāli terms are bhavana-mayā paññā, cintā-mayā paññā and suta-mayā paññā, respectively.)What strikes me about Augustine is his depth in all three methods; most people seem comfortable in one or at most two of them.
People may debate at cross purposes because they use different approaches to understand the world. Someone who thinks about the world experientially will have difficulty finding common ground with someone grounded in logic, and both may belittle someone who defers to tradition or social norms.
When I shared this idea with Dor Deasy, she pointed out that John Wesley thought faith should be approached from four perspectives: Experience, Reason, Scripture and Tradition, which map to the three above if one combines Scripture and Tradition. According to Wikipedia, the Wesleyan Quadrilateral can be seen as a matrix for interpreting the Bible in mutually complementary ways: “[T]he living core of the Christian faith was revealed in Scripture, illumined by tradition, vivified in personal experience, and confirmed by reason.”
Different personality types approach faith in different ways, though. Peter Richardson’s Four Spiritualities: Expressions of Self, Expression of Spirit uses the Meyers-Briggs personality inventory to characterize an individual’s bent. It may come down to brain physiology: I would not be surprised to learn that some people's brains are built in a way that predispose them to mystical experiences, while others are optimized for logic, or absorbing social norms.